> 原文出处:http://hukai.me/android-performance-battery/ > 作者: 胡凯 Google近期在Udacity上发布了[Android性能优化的在线课程](https://www.udacity.com/course/ud825),分别从渲染,运算与内存,电量几个方面介绍了如何去优化性能,这些课程是Google之前在Youtube上发布的[Android性能优化典范](http://hukai.me/android-performance-patterns/)专题课程的细化与补充。 下面是电量篇章的学习笔记,部分内容与前面的性能优化典范有重合,欢迎大家一起学习交流! ## 1)Understanding Battery Drain 手机各个硬件模块的耗电量是不一样的,有些模块非常耗电,而有些模块则相对显得耗电量小很多。 ![android_perf_battery_drain](https://box.kancloud.cn/2015-08-21_55d6c69ae8048.png) 电量消耗的计算与统计是一件麻烦而且矛盾的事情,记录电量消耗本身也是一个费电量的事情。唯一可行的方案是使用第三方监测电量的设备,这样才能够获取到真实的电量消耗。 当设备处于待机状态时消耗的电量是极少的,以N5为例,打开飞行模式,可以待机接近1个月。可是点亮屏幕,硬件各个模块就需要开始工作,这会需要消耗很多电量。 使用WakeLock或者JobScheduler唤醒设备处理定时的任务之后,一定要及时让设备回到初始状态。每次唤醒蜂窝信号进行数据传递,都会消耗很多电量,它比WiFi等操作更加的耗电。 ![battery_drain_radio](https://box.kancloud.cn/2015-08-21_55d6c6a50c29b.png) ## 2)Battery Historian [Battery Historian](https://developer.android.com/about/versions/android-5.0.html#Power)是Android 5.0开始引入的新API。通过下面的指令,可以得到设备上的电量消耗信息: ~~~ $ adb shell dumpsys batterystats > xxx.txt //得到整个设备的电量消耗信息 $ adb shell dumpsys batterystats > com.package.name > xxx.txt //得到指定app相关的电量消耗信息 ~~~ 得到了原始的电量消耗数据之后,我们需要通过Google编写的一个[python脚本](https://github.com/google/battery-historian)把数据信息转换成可读性更好的html文件: ~~~ $ python historian.py xxx.txt > xxx.html ~~~ 打开这个转换过后的html文件,可以看到类似TraceView生成的列表数据,这里的数据信息量很大,这里就不展开了。 ![android_perf_battery_historian](https://box.kancloud.cn/2015-08-21_55d6c6bb864fa.png) ## 3)Track Battery Status & Battery Manager 我们可以通过下面的代码来获取手机的当前充电状态: ~~~ // It is very easy to subscribe to changes to the battery state, but you can get the current // state by simply passing null in as your receiver. Nifty, isn't that? IntentFilter filter = new IntentFilter(Intent.ACTION_BATTERY_CHANGED); Intent batteryStatus = this.registerReceiver(null, filter); int chargePlug = batteryStatus.getIntExtra(BatteryManager.EXTRA_PLUGGED, -1); boolean acCharge = (chargePlug == BatteryManager.BATTERY_PLUGGED_AC); if (acCharge) { Log.v(LOG_TAG,“The phone is charging!”); } ~~~ 在上面的例子演示了如何立即获取到手机的充电状态,得到充电状态信息之后,我们可以有针对性的对部分代码做优化。比如我们可以判断只有当前手机为AC充电状态时 才去执行一些非常耗电的操作。 ~~~ /** * This method checks for power by comparing the current battery state against all possible * plugged in states. In this case, a device may be considered plugged in either by USB, AC, or * wireless charge. (Wireless charge was introduced in API Level 17.) */ private boolean checkForPower() { // It is very easy to subscribe to changes to the battery state, but you can get the current // state by simply passing null in as your receiver. Nifty, isn't that? IntentFilter filter = new IntentFilter(Intent.ACTION_BATTERY_CHANGED); Intent batteryStatus = this.registerReceiver(null, filter); // There are currently three ways a device can be plugged in. We should check them all. int chargePlug = batteryStatus.getIntExtra(BatteryManager.EXTRA_PLUGGED, -1); boolean usbCharge = (chargePlug == BatteryManager.BATTERY_PLUGGED_USB); boolean acCharge = (chargePlug == BatteryManager.BATTERY_PLUGGED_AC); boolean wirelessCharge = false; if (Build.VERSION.SDK_INT >= Build.VERSION_CODES.JELLY_BEAN_MR1) { wirelessCharge = (chargePlug == BatteryManager.BATTERY_PLUGGED_WIRELESS); } return (usbCharge || acCharge || wirelessCharge); } ~~~ ## 4)Wakelock and Battery Drain 高效的保留更多的电量与不断促使用户使用你的App会消耗电量,这是矛盾的选择题。不过我们可以使用一些更好的办法来平衡两者。 假设你的手机里面装了大量的社交类应用,即使手机处于待机状态,也会经常被这些应用唤醒用来检查同步新的数据信息。Android会不断关闭各种硬件来延长手机的待机时间,首先屏幕会逐渐变暗直至关闭,然后CPU进入睡眠,这一切操作都是为了节约宝贵的电量资源。但是即使在这种睡眠状态下,大多数应用还是会尝试进行工作,他们将不断的唤醒手机。一个最简单的唤醒手机的方法是使用PowerManager.WakeLock的API来保持CPU工作并防止屏幕变暗关闭。这使得手机可以被唤醒,执行工作,然后回到睡眠状态。知道如何获取WakeLock是简单的,可是及时释放WakeLock也是非常重要的,不恰当的使用WakeLock会导致严重错误。例如网络请求的数据返回时间不确定,导致本来只需要10s的事情一直等待了1个小时,这样会使得电量白白浪费了。这也是为何使用带超时参数的wakelock.acquice()方法是很关键的。 但是仅仅设置超时并不足够解决问题,例如设置多长的超时比较合适?什么时候进行重试等等?解决上面的问题,正确的方式可能是使用非精准定时器。通常情况下,我们会设定一个时间进行某个操作,但是动态修改这个时间也许会更好。例如,如果有另外一个程序需要比你设定的时间晚5分钟唤醒,最好能够等到那个时候,两个任务捆绑一起同时进行,这就是非精确定时器的核心工作原理。我们可以定制计划的任务,可是系统如果检测到一个更好的时间,它可以推迟你的任务,以节省电量消耗。 ![alarmmanager_inexact_wakelock](https://box.kancloud.cn/2015-08-21_55d6c6c7ba220.png) 这正是JobScheduler API所做的事情。它会根据当前的情况与任务,组合出理想的唤醒时间,例如等到正在充电或者连接到WiFi的时候,或者集中任务一起执行。我们可以通过这个API实现很多免费的调度算法。 ## 5)Network and Battery Drain 下面内容来自官方Training文档中[高效下载](http://hukai.me/android-training-course-in-chinese/connectivity/efficient-downloads/efficient-network-access.html)章节关于手机(Radio)蜂窝信号对电量消耗的介绍。 通常情况下,使用3G移动网络传输数据,电量的消耗有三种状态: * **Full power**: 能量最高的状态,移动网络连接被激活,允许设备以最大的传输速率进行操作。 * **Low power**: 一种中间状态,对电量的消耗差不多是Full power状态下的50%。 * **Standby**: 最低的状态,没有数据连接需要传输,电量消耗最少。 下图是一个典型的3G Radio State Machine的图示(来自AT&T,详情请点击[这里](http://www.research.att.com/articles/featured_stories/2011_03/201102_Energy_efficient?fbid=SYuI20FzBum)): ![mobile_radio_state_machine.png](https://box.kancloud.cn/2015-08-21_55d6c6cc9c1cd.png "Figure 1\. Typical 3G wireless radio state machine.") **总之,为了减少电量的消耗,在蜂窝移动网络下,最好做到批量执行网络请求,尽量避免频繁的间隔网络请求。** 通过前面学习到的Battery Historian我们可以得到设备的电量消耗数据,如果数据中的移动蜂窝网络(Mobile Radio)电量消耗呈现下面的情况,间隔很小,又频繁断断续续的出现,说明电量消耗性能很不好: ![android_perf_battery_bad.png](https://box.kancloud.cn/2015-08-21_55d6c6ceb6d86.png) 经过优化之后,如果呈现下面的图示,说明电量消耗的性能是良好的: ![android_perf_battery_good](https://box.kancloud.cn/2015-08-21_55d6c6d1c8297.png) 另外WiFi连接下,网络传输的电量消耗要比移动网络少很多,应该尽量减少移动网络下的数据传输,多在WiFi环境下传输数据。 ![android_perf_battery_wifi](https://box.kancloud.cn/2015-08-21_55d6c6dda75ec.png) 那么如何才能够把任务缓存起来,做到批量化执行呢?下面就轮到Job Scheduler出场了。 ## 6)Using Job Scheduler 使用[Job Scheduler](https://developer.android.com/reference/android/app/job/JobScheduler.html),应用需要做的事情就是判断哪些任务是不紧急的,可以交给Job Scheduler来处理,Job Scheduler集中处理收到的任务,选择合适的时间,合适的网络,再一起进行执行。 下面是使用Job Scheduler的一段简要示例,需要先有一个JobService: ~~~ public class MyJobService extends JobService { private static final String LOG_TAG = "MyJobService"; @Override public void onCreate() { super.onCreate(); Log.i(LOG_TAG, "MyJobService created"); } @Override public void onDestroy() { super.onDestroy(); Log.i(LOG_TAG, "MyJobService destroyed"); } @Override public boolean onStartJob(JobParameters params) { // This is where you would implement all of the logic for your job. Note that this runs // on the main thread, so you will want to use a separate thread for asynchronous work // (as we demonstrate below to establish a network connection). // If you use a separate thread, return true to indicate that you need a "reschedule" to // return to the job at some point in the future to finish processing the work. Otherwise, // return false when finished. Log.i(LOG_TAG, "Totally and completely working on job " + params.getJobId()); // First, check the network, and then attempt to connect. if (isNetworkConnected()) { new SimpleDownloadTask() .execute(params); return true; } else { Log.i(LOG_TAG, "No connection on job " + params.getJobId() + "; sad face"); } return false; } @Override public boolean onStopJob(JobParameters params) { // Called if the job must be stopped before jobFinished() has been called. This may // happen if the requirements are no longer being met, such as the user no longer // connecting to WiFi, or the device no longer being idle. Use this callback to resolve // anything that may cause your application to misbehave from the job being halted. // Return true if the job should be rescheduled based on the retry criteria specified // when the job was created or return false to drop the job. Regardless of the value // returned, your job must stop executing. Log.i(LOG_TAG, "Whelp, something changed, so I'm calling it on job " + params.getJobId()); return false; } /** * Determines if the device is currently online. */ private boolean isNetworkConnected() { ConnectivityManager connectivityManager = (ConnectivityManager) getSystemService(Context.CONNECTIVITY_SERVICE); NetworkInfo networkInfo = connectivityManager.getActiveNetworkInfo(); return (networkInfo != null && networkInfo.isConnected()); } /** * Uses AsyncTask to create a task away from the main UI thread. This task creates a * HTTPUrlConnection, and then downloads the contents of the webpage as an InputStream. * The InputStream is then converted to a String, which is logged by the * onPostExecute() method. */ private class SimpleDownloadTask extends AsyncTask<JobParameters, Void, String> { protected JobParameters mJobParam; @Override protected String doInBackground(JobParameters... params) { // cache system provided job requirements mJobParam = params[0]; try { InputStream is = null; // Only display the first 50 characters of the retrieved web page content. int len = 50; URL url = new URL("https://www.google.com"); HttpURLConnection conn = (HttpURLConnection) url.openConnection(); conn.setReadTimeout(10000); //10sec conn.setConnectTimeout(15000); //15sec conn.setRequestMethod("GET"); //Starts the query conn.connect(); int response = conn.getResponseCode(); Log.d(LOG_TAG, "The response is: " + response); is = conn.getInputStream(); // Convert the input stream to a string Reader reader = null; reader = new InputStreamReader(is, "UTF-8"); char[] buffer = new char[len]; reader.read(buffer); return new String(buffer); } catch (IOException e) { return "Unable to retrieve web page."; } } @Override protected void onPostExecute(String result) { jobFinished(mJobParam, false); Log.i(LOG_TAG, result); } } } ~~~ 然后模拟通过点击Button触发N个任务,交给JobService来处理 ~~~ public class FreeTheWakelockActivity extends ActionBarActivity { public static final String LOG_TAG = "FreeTheWakelockActivity"; TextView mWakeLockMsg; ComponentName mServiceComponent; @Override protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.activity_wakelock); mWakeLockMsg = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.wakelock_txt); mServiceComponent = new ComponentName(this, MyJobService.class); Intent startServiceIntent = new Intent(this, MyJobService.class); startService(startServiceIntent); Button theButtonThatWakelocks = (Button) findViewById(R.id.wakelock_poll); theButtonThatWakelocks.setText(R.string.poll_server_button); theButtonThatWakelocks.setOnClickListener(new View.OnClickListener() { @Override public void onClick(View v) { pollServer(); } }); } /** * This method polls the server via the JobScheduler API. By scheduling the job with this API, * your app can be confident it will execute, but without the need for a wake lock. Rather, the * API will take your network jobs and execute them in batch to best take advantage of the * initial network connection cost. * * The JobScheduler API works through a background service. In this sample, we have * a simple service in MyJobService to get you started. The job is scheduled here in * the activity, but the job itself is executed in MyJobService in the startJob() method. For * example, to poll your server, you would create the network connection, send your GET * request, and then process the response all in MyJobService. This allows the JobScheduler API * to invoke your logic without needed to restart your activity. * * For brevity in the sample, we are scheduling the same job several times in quick succession, * but again, try to consider similar tasks occurring over time in your application that can * afford to wait and may benefit from batching. */ public void pollServer() { JobScheduler scheduler = (JobScheduler) getSystemService(Context.JOB_SCHEDULER_SERVICE); for (int i=0; i<10; i++) { JobInfo jobInfo = new JobInfo.Builder(i, mServiceComponent) .setMinimumLatency(5000) // 5 seconds .setOverrideDeadline(60000) // 60 seconds (for brevity in the sample) .setRequiredNetworkType(JobInfo.NETWORK_TYPE_ANY) // WiFi or data connections .build(); mWakeLockMsg.append("Scheduling job " + i + "!\n"); scheduler.schedule(jobInfo); } } } ~~~ **Notes:**关于更多电量优化,还有一篇文章,请点击[这里](http://developer.android.com/training/efficient-downloads/index.html)