经过两个多月的AS体验,我认为是时候将Android的开发环境迁移到AS上了。目前最新版本是1.0.2(大年30当天升级到1.1.0),除了UI控件拖拽偶尔崩溃的问题(Ubuntu),其他功能用来还是十分流畅和高效。打动我的有如下几个特色: * 智能感知体验特好,堪比VS * 布局预览,手写布局后预览页面即时显示,便于布局调整和优化 * 编辑速度飞快流畅,毫无eclipse的卡顿 * 布局或源码中有图标和颜色的预览,十分直观 * 调试时体验极佳 * 集成了Terminal,喜欢命令行操作的伙伴不用额外启动终端了。 总之一句话,就是用起来特别爽! Android Studio 源于[IntelliJ IDEA](http://blog.csdn.net/lincyang/article/details/www.jetbrains.com/idea/ "IntelliJ IDEA")的社区版,构建工具是[Gradle](http://www.gradle.org/ "Gradle")这个下一代的构建工具,再加上Google为Android定制的一些工具,那么AS必然会成为Android开发工具的经典款。 ## Android Studio的安装 Adnroid官网上不去,我们可以到其他[网站下载](http://www.android-studio.org/index.php/88-download/ "AS download")AS,然后再升级到1.0.2。  AS对系统的要求不低,不过我这i7处理器+8G内存还是毫无压力啊。 Windows ~~~ Microsoft® Windows® 8/7/Vista/2003 (32 or 64-bit) 2 GB RAM minimum, 4 GB RAM recommended 400 MB hard disk space At least 1 GB for Android SDK, emulator system images, and caches 1280 x 800 minimum screen resolution Java Development Kit (JDK) 7 Optional for accelerated emulator: Intel® processor with support for Intel® VT-x, Intel® EM64T (Intel® 64), and Execute Disable (XD) Bit functionality ~~~ Mac OS X ~~~ Mac® OS X® 10.8.5 or higher, up to 10.9 (Mavericks) 2 GB RAM minimum, 4 GB RAM recommended 400 MB hard disk space At least 1 GB for Android SDK, emulator system images, and caches 1280 x 800 minimum screen resolution Java Runtime Environment (JRE) 6 Java Development Kit (JDK) 7 Optional for accelerated emulator: Intel® processor with support for Intel® VT-x, Intel® EM64T (Intel® 64), and Execute Disable (XD) Bit functionality ~~~ On Mac OS, run Android Studio with Java Runtime Environment (JRE) 6 for optimized font rendering. You can then configure your project to use Java Development Kit (JDK) 6 or JDK 7.  Linux ~~~ GNOME or KDE desktop GNU C Library (glibc) 2.11 or later 2 GB RAM minimum, 4 GB RAM recommended 400 MB hard disk space At least 1 GB for Android SDK, emulator system images, and caches 1280 x 800 minimum screen resolution Oracle® Java Development Kit (JDK) 7 ~~~ 下载后将其解压到你指定的路径。我在Ubuntu下工作,就直接将其放到/opt下了。解压后内容如下: ~~~ android-studio3$ ls bin build.txt gradle Install-Linux-tar.txt lib license LICENSE.txt NOTICE.txt plugins ~~~ 值得一说的是,gradle就在这里,一会儿我们可以直接用gradle去做简单的编译工作。首先,我们要执行bin下的studio.sh启动AS,就像Install-Linux-tar.txt中说的,我们可以将这个bin目录放到系统变量中,以后启动AS只需输入studio.sh即可。比如我在.bashrc中添加如下内容: ~~~ export PATH="$PATH:/opt/android-studio3/bin" export PATH="$PATH:/opt/android-studio3/gradle/gradle-2.2.1/bin" ~~~ 首次启动会检测sdk并升级到最新,如果不用代理,这一步我们无法通过,AS就不会启动成功。解决办法就是将自己的Adnroid SDK Manager配好代理到国内的镜像,请参照[《Android实战技巧之九:最新Android开发环境(Eclipse+ADT+Android 5.0) 》](http://blog.csdn.net/lincyang/article/details/42029257 "eclipse adt"),顺利通过升级后,AS会成功启动。后面的事情就简单了,界面清晰明了,就像你用其他IDE一样,上手很快。但是项目结果变化很大(与Eclipse相比),快捷键变化也很大,都要适应一段时间。下载一份[Keymap](https://www.jetbrains.com/idea/docs/IntelliJIDEA_ReferenceCard.pdf "keymap")打印出来,用到了就看看,会很快进入状态。 Tips:  打开项目后修改sdk和jdk路径,设置如下:File –>Other Settings –>Default project Structure  如果你喜欢黑色风格的主题,那么切换到吸血鬼Darcula主题是个不错的选择:File–>Settings–>Appearance–>Theme ## Gradle 项目中有两个build.gradle文件,如下: ~~~ $ find -name build.gradle ./app/build.gradle ./build.gradle ~~~ 项目根目录下的build.gradle只做了比较commen的配置,app下的build.gradle是针对此app更细致的配置: ~~~ apply plugin: 'com.android.application' android { compileSdkVersion 21 buildToolsVersion "21.1.2" defaultConfig { applicationId "com.linc.arrowfall" minSdkVersion 17 targetSdkVersion 21 versionCode 1 versionName "1.0" } buildTypes { release { minifyEnabled false proguardFiles getDefaultProguardFile('proguard-android.txt'), 'proguard-rules.pro' } } } dependencies { compile fileTree(dir: 'libs', include: ['*.jar']) compile 'com.android.support:appcompat-v7:21.0.3' } ~~~ Make Project(Ctrl+F9)时,右下角Gradle Console就会打印如下信息: ~~~ Executing tasks: [:app:compileDebugSources] Configuration on demand is an incubating feature. :app:preBuild :app:preDebugBuild :app:checkDebugManifest :app:preReleaseBuild :app:prepareComAndroidSupportAppcompatV72103Library UP-TO-DATE :app:prepareComAndroidSupportSupportV42103Library UP-TO-DATE :app:prepareDebugDependencies :app:compileDebugAidl UP-TO-DATE :app:compileDebugRenderscript UP-TO-DATE :app:generateDebugBuildConfig UP-TO-DATE :app:generateDebugAssets UP-TO-DATE :app:mergeDebugAssets UP-TO-DATE :app:generateDebugResValues UP-TO-DATE :app:generateDebugResources UP-TO-DATE :app:mergeDebugResources UP-TO-DATE :app:processDebugManifest UP-TO-DATE :app:processDebugResources UP-TO-DATE :app:generateDebugSources UP-TO-DATE :app:compileDebugJava :app:compileDebugNdk :app:compileDebugSources BUILD SUCCESSFUL Total time: 10.23 secs ~~~ 先放下AS中的Gradle,我们先从Gradle命令行说起。刚刚提到AS中自带的Gradle路径在android-studio3/gradle/gradle-2.2.1/bin下,将其加入到环境变量(如上),这样在如何位置都可以使用gradle工具了。下面来作一下gradle最简单的使用: ~~~ $ gradle -v ------------------------------------------------------------ Gradle 2.2.1 ------------------------------------------------------------ Build time: 2014-11-24 09:45:35 UTC Build number: none Revision: 6fcb59c06f43a4e6b1bcb401f7686a8601a1fb4a Groovy: 2.3.6 Ant: Apache Ant(TM) version 1.9.3 compiled on December 23 2013 JVM: 1.7.0_71 (Oracle Corporation 24.71-b01) OS: Linux 3.13.0-45-generic amd64 ~~~ gradle是正常工作了,下面来个hello world吧。新建一个build.gradle文件,加入如下代码: ~~~ task helloworld << { println 'hello world' } ~~~ 这个task只输出一条log,执行如下命令: ~~~ $ gradle -q helloworld hello world ~~~ 参数-q只是打印log,这个task也就是此功能而已。  在此目录下执行gradle –gui,调出图形界面的gradle,看看helloworld的其他信息。 **编译Java程序**  现在尝试编译一个最简单的Java程序,在刚刚的目录下新建目录和文件如下: ~~~ $ mkdir -p src/main/java/com/linc; vim src/main/java/com/linc/HelloWorld.java ~~~ 代码内如如下: ~~~ package com.linc; public class HelloWorld { public static void main(String args[]) { System.out.println("hello, world"); } } ~~~ build.gradle文件与src目录平级,内如只有一行: ~~~ apply plugin: 'java' ~~~ 此时运行**gradle build**: ~~~ $ gradle build :compileJava :processResources UP-TO-DATE :classes :jar :assemble :compileTestJava UP-TO-DATE :processTestResources UP-TO-DATE :testClasses UP-TO-DATE :test UP-TO-DATE :check UP-TO-DATE :build BUILD SUCCESSFUL Total time: 2.206 secs ~~~ 此时的目录结构变为如下所示: ~~~ $ tree -L 6 . ├── build │ ├── classes │ │ └── main │ │ └── com │ │ └── linc │ │ └── HelloWorld.class │ ├── dependency-cache │ ├── libs │ │ └── helloworld.jar │ └── tmp │ ├── compileJava │ └── jar │ └── MANIFEST.MF ├── HelloWorld.java └── src └── main └── java └── com └── linc └── HelloWorld.java ~~~ 运行编译好的java程序: ~~~ $ java -cp build/classes/main/ com.linc.HelloWorld hello, world ~~~ Gradle的初体验就到这里,更复杂的构建任务还在后头。有了AS这个强大的工具,Android开发会变得越来越有乐趣! * * * 参考: [http://www.gradle.org/documentation](http://www.gradle.org/documentation)  [http://www.android-studio.org/index.php/88-download/](http://www.android-studio.org/index.php/88-download/)